Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an aphid-borne closterovirus, is the casual agent of the most important citrus disease all around the world. Due to different foci of CTV signalled in South Italy, recently an EU Directive ruled out Italy from protected zones for CTV. The phytosanitary situation needs a new evaluation of control measures for CTV and a broad regulation strategy. This paper reviews the characteristics of citrus tristeza disease, as well as biological, serological and genomic properties of the causal virus and the available control strategies in different cases of epidemics. Harmful citrus pathogens, included in the directive 2002/89/EU (recently applied in Italy by DL n. 214 of 24.10.2005) and in EPPO lists of quarantine pests, such as variegated chlorosis, huanglongbing, stubborn, witches’ broom, satsuma dwarf virus, leprosis, tatter leaf, blight, sudden death, are also discussed.
Keywords: citrus, Citrus tristeza virus, virus vectors, other harmful organisms