Aspetti fisici ed ecofisiologici nella previsione e difesa delle piante da frutto dalle gelate tardive

Franco Zinoni [Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente, Direzione Tecnica, Area di Monitoraggio Ambientale, Via Po 5, 40139 Bologna, Italy]
Gabriele Antolini [Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente, Servizio Idrometeorologico, Area Agrometeorologia e Territorio, Viale Silvani 6, 40122 Bologna, Italy]
Ugo Palara [Centro Interprovinciale di Sperimentazione Agroambientale Mario Neri, Via Emilia Levante 18, 40026 Imola (Bologna), Italy]
Federica Rossi [Istituto di Biometeorologia del CNR, Via Gobetti101, 40129 Bologna, Italy]
Giampiero Reggidori [ApoConerpo, Via Tosarelli 155, 40050 Villanova di Castenaso (Bologna), Italy]

Late frosts represent for fruit production one of the most relevant natural hazard worldwide, considering severity and extent of damage, whose occurrence is constantly increasing, concomitantly to the increase of climate variability. Therefore, impacts on affected farms and local economy are often devastating, but information about how to protect plants from freezing is relatively limited. The research in the field of forecast, risk hazard assessment and protection is directly towards the reduction of the risk level, acting together new orientations in the selection of resistant cvs. Crop vulnerability is jointly determined by genetic peculiarities of the various species and cvs, but a determinant role is played by phenology and agronomic practices. The orchard structural features, tree canopy characteristics and tree arrangement in rows are determinant in conditioning energy and radiation exchanges between soil and the surrounding atmosphere, thus on the exchange processes that are responsible of radiation frosts, mainly occurring in the spring, when plant sensibility is at its maximum. The knowledges of local meteorology, together with the weather reports, which can forecast risk situations, should support the acquisition of passive protection systems and to improve the active ones. The correct evaluation of frost risk holds a great importance in fruit orchard programming and in the choice of protection systems and, therefore, the drawing up of risk maps which correlate the topographical characteristics of soil with the tolerance level of the different fruit tree species.

Keywords: climatic risk, frost protection, frost forecasting, orchard ecophysiology

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Zinoni, F., Antolini, G., Palara, U., Rossi, F. and Reggidori, G. (2005) 'Aspetti fisici ed ecofisiologici nella previsione e difesa delle piante da frutto dalle gelate tardive', Italus Hortus, 12(4), pp. 63-78.