Towards grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) mildews resistance: molecular defence mechanisms and New Breeding Technologies
Clizia Villano [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Portici, Italy]Riccardo Aversano [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Portici, Italy]
One of the main challenges for viticulture is to sustainably maintain the production of high-quality grape varieties in the face of climate change. Current models predict an increasing disease pressure for grape, mainly because of warmer conditions in late spring-early summer. New strategies to address this challenge can stem from a deeper understanding of the grape biology and of the plant interaction with some major biotic stresses, such as mildew diseases. Grape thwarts the attack and invasion of pathogens using a composite molecular array, whose components and interactions are not fully known. This review aims to provide insights into the current understanding of plant defense mechanisms against fungal pathogens, and to discuss the set of cellular molecules that have been functionally identified in grape. It also highlights information related to the activation of grapes’ immunity by using high-throughput genome-wide screenings and New Breeding Techniques as a powerful tool to achieve long-lasting and broad-spectrum resistance. Finally, the review provides food for thought to improve the sustainability of viticulture through the integration of genetic and biotechnological strategies for pathogen resistance.
Keywords: grapevine, fungi resistance, conventional breeding, New Breeding Technologies, QTLs, genomic approaches